Phytophthora on tomatoes: how to fight, than to process
Each gardener sooner or later encounters the eternal enemy of their seedlings - late blight. The disease progresses in a few days and is able to destroy most of the beds with tomatoes. It is very difficult to deal with it, but even more difficult is to detect it in time. We tell you how to do it and how to treat the affected plants!
What is late blight?
Phytophthora is a fungus that affects garden and horticultural crops literally before our eyes. It develops very quickly and spread even faster throughout the site. Initially, it is a disease of tomatoes, eggplant and potatoes, but it also affects many other plants.
Reasons for the appearance
Phytophthora thrives on humid warm days with strong temperature changes from day to night and plentiful dew. It is water that best carries the spores of the fungus to the site, but on dry hot days they, on the contrary, die.
Blight is transmitted literally in all possible ways - through the soil, seeds, tubers, from seedlings to seedlings, on tools, soles and gloves. The infection is stored for a long time and is waiting for a favorable moment. Spores can sleep and show no signs of life even for several years.
How to recognize a disease
Phytophthora is difficult to recognize in time, and then too late, because it can destroy tomatoes literally in a night. The incubation period of the disease at 20 degrees is less than three days. Crop losses can reach 70% and even higher.
The first signs of late blight are brown dry spots on the leaves, which gradually grow and become covered with a whitish bloom. They move to the stems and fruits of tomatoes, and slowly crawl from the bottom up. If the weather is dry enough, the affected tissues simply die, and if wet, they rot.
In the last stages, the tomato fruits from phytophthora blacken and dry for almost a couple of hours. And at first - the disease is easy to confuse with other fungi, only now they are much less rapid. Affected plants, in fact, die from a lack of oxygen. There are such fruits or it is strictly forbidden to use seeds - they are infected.
Chemicals: what to process?
Chemical fungicides are faster, more effective and more effective. But you need to work with them very carefully, use protection and carefully observe the dosages!
The most versatile and effective tool is a real lifesaver for gardeners. It quickly acts on all fungal and bacterial diseases.
Complex two-component fungicide is suitable for the treatment and prevention of late blight. Its main advantages are high duration of protective action and effectiveness at low temperatures.
Highly effective fungicide copes well with late blight of tomatoes. The active components in the composition stop the development of the fungus and destroy it.
The popular two-component fungicide is well suited for the prevention of late blight. It is almost everywhere, convenient, popular and inexpensive, but for emergency treatment it is better to take something more specialized.
The biological product is suitable for processing tomatoes and disinfecting the soil. It contains spores of another beneficial fungus that inhibit late blight.
The action of systemic fungicide is provided by live soil bacteria that destroy the fungus. Additionally, the drug stimulates growth and increases the immunity of plants.
A universal remedy is used for the simultaneous prevention of fungi and insects. For convenience, Haupsin is available in the form of a liquid of different volumes - up to 5 liters.
A universal bactericidal drug is available in the form of tablets that are convenient for use. It can be used for watering, spraying and tillage.
Copper-based fungicide is a win-win remedy in the fight against late blight of tomatoes. It penetrates the very structure of the plant and protects it from the inside and outside.
Contact fungicide is specially formulated for tomatoes and potatoes. Three treatments per season are sufficient to prevent most fungal diseases.
Folk remedies: how to fight?
Industrial chemicals are not the only way to fight for the health of your favorite garden. Although phytophthora is really very dangerous, folk methods remain quite effective!
The space around the stems is better to mulch regularly. Mulch retains moisture and nutrients well, but at the same time creates unfavorable conditions for the fungus. It forms a healthy microflora, and it also protects the plant from night frosts.
Lactic acid is surprisingly very effective against harmful fungi. The method is very mild and gentle, but weekly spraying of tomatoes is an excellent prevention of late blight. Only dilute kefir with ordinary standing water in a proportion of 1:10.
Perhaps one of the strangest methods is to pierce the stem of a tomato with a thin copper wire. But first, be sure to disinfect it so as not to infect another infection. The wire is inserted at a height of about 5 cm from the ground, and it literally blocks the path of infection.
Garlic solution is a universal remedy for the prevention of most fungi and parasites. It contains useful substances that positively affect the immunity of the plant. Prepare a strong infusion of 200 g of garlic per liter and sprinkle about 150 ml of tomatoes in each bush.
Prepare the simplest saline solution from a glass of kitchen salt in a bucket of water. Remove all damaged areas from the tomatoes and treat them with a solution. Salt creates a rather durable protective film on the surface so that phytophthora spores cannot penetrate and spread further.
Mix half a bucket of ash with a bucket of water and let it stand for three days in a dark place, stirring occasionally. Process, add about 30 g of grated soap and dilute with water to 30 liters. Such preventive spraying begins as soon as the seedlings have finally taken root.
Dry tinder mushroom should be crushed and pour boiling water in a ratio of 100 g per liter. Spraying is carried out every one and a half weeks, and they effectively inhibit further infection of tomatoes.
Prevention of late blight on tomatoes
In order not to have to fight late blight in an unequal battle, it is better to prevent it in advance. To do this, create comfortable conditions for the beds of tomatoes, not to thicken the planting and be sure to separate the tomatoes with potatoes. Follow the rules of agricultural technology and crop rotation, especially if you have a large field!
Necessarily need ventilation and good ventilation, so it is recommended to pinch the lower leaves of tomatoes. Carefully water the tomatoes under the root without filling the entire seedlings. Immediately remove all plant debris and weeds, and in season do not forget about the preventive treatment with fungicides.
There are no varieties that are immune to late blight, but early tomato varieties are more resistant to it. Only select proven seed and be sure to pickle it before use. According to statistics, tall and early ripening varieties, as well as some hybrids, are less likely to suffer from a fungus.